What are mental illnesses, how do we recognize them, and how are they treated. Psychologist makes a complete picture of mental illnesses, which fall into two main categories: curable, such as depression, and lack of a cure, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
In general, people associate mental illness with the term “madness” and do not make a clear line between them. To help understand these diseases, cure or at least to improve them, and report to people suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to find out in detail. If we should summarize everything in a few words, we could say that mental illness falls into two broad categories: neurosis and psychosis. The first category includes curable or transient mental illnesses, and the second includes diseases that never heal but can only improve. The first category includes depression, also called depressive neurosis, which, although it has a disease’s status, can be cured when the external or internal factors that caused it to disappear. We can compare it to a cold; it has an external cause, exposure to cold or viruses, and an internal one, the body’s low immunity. It has unpleasant transient manifestations, such as cough, fever, or sneezing, but after a while, it heals if it is well treated, and the conditions that favored it disappear, just like in an acute depression. There are also chronic depressions, which can reach a psychotic intensity but are also classified as neuroses.
Things are different in psychoses, a category that includes serious diseases, such as schizophrenia, manic-depressive or bipolar psychosis. Some diseases never heal, although they can be cured by medication.
Recognition and Treatment
What are mental illnesses, how do we recognize them, and how have they treated: NEUROSIS The psycho-medical term “neurosis” was introduced into the literature by the physician William Cullen in 1749, “neurosis” being a combination of the Greek words “neuron”, which means nerve, and “osis”, which means sick. Neurosis – in neurosis, in translation – therefore means a disease of the nerves. Neuroses are mental disorders that the patient is aware of. They have a variable duration, of the order of days or years, after which the patient returns to the state before neurosis’s appearance. They differ from personality disorders because they have a distinct onset, generated by a particular cause, and not a continuous development. It represents a conflict between two instances of the same psyche – between the Self and the Self, as Freud said. In other words, the patient conflicts with himself because there are irreversible or overwhelming situations in his life, which he overcomes only by going through a long adaptation process. Neuroses, unlike psychoses, occur temporarily in a mentally normal individual. The neurotic never loses touch with reality, while the psychotic completely deny the outside world, building his world dominated by delirium and hallucinations. Unlike the psychotic, who is no longer rational and no longer clear in expression, the neurotic can communicate and externalize, his disorder being completely coherent and understood, which favors treatment through psychotherapy.
The neurotic is afraid of breaking contact with reality, while the psychotic is afraid that the world he has built will disappear. The neurotic language is rational, with logical, intact, coherent meaning, while the language of the psychotic becomes disorganized, chaotic, delusional, without following a logical thread. The neurotic patient can recognize his problems and ask for help, his disorder being resolvable with the help of psychotherapy or psychoanalysis sessions. Simultaneously, the psychotic is not aware of his problem, considering himself perfectly healthy, although his illness frequently requires medication to keep a shadow of normalcy in attitude and behavior.
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